Facial skeletal deformity occurs during birth when there is a complexity or distortion of the mandibular or maxillary growth. The patient suffers from severe bruxism, crowding of teeth, dental deformity, and difficulties in mastication or chewing. If the condition is left untreated, the patient could also suffer from breathing problems, and disturbances in digestion. The causes of facial skeletal problems are:
- Genetic: A particular combination of genes during conception results in the deformity
- Folic acid: Deficiency in folic acid in pregnant women which is an important source of vitamin B can cause skeletal problems
Common types of facial deformities :
Cleft lip or cleft palate: the lip or the roof of the mouth are separated at birth; this is one of the most common anomalies of the face
- Cleft lip: the lip does not form completely; the degree of cleft varies; a large opening can also be seen from the lip to the nose
- Cleft palate: the roof of the mouth does not close completely; an opening forms that extends into the nasal cavity; this could also extend to the throat which is known as soft palate or the front of the mouth also known as hard palate
Dr. Renju Anil recommends myofunctional appliances for the correction of developmental skeletal problems of the face. The appliance is either removable or fixed and gradually changes the position of the mandible. Acrylic and wirework generate forces that stretch the muscles and fascia. Functional appliances bring about orthopaedic changes, dento-alveolar and muscular and soft tissue changes. The use of these devices accelerates the growth of the condylar region, remodel the glenoid fossa and can change the direction growth in the jaws. Some devices used are vestibular screen, lip bumpers, activators, functional regulators, twin block appliances, bionators and Herbst appliances to name a few.